I was using Ubuntu 16.04 LTS with it's default 4.4 kernel and would like to test BBR congestion algorithm which available since 4.10 only.
Solution is very simple due to LTSEnablementStack/HWE feature. Can't say why, but this feature wasn't enabled at target host, probably it was installed too long ago, before HWE became default option.
apt-get install --install-recommends linux-generic-hwe-16.04
In case of desktop machine, just add XOrg-related metapackage:
apt-get install --install-recommends linux-generic-hwe-16.04 xserver-xorg-hwe-16.04
Then reboot the host and it's done:
# uname -r 4.10.0-27-generic